The 18-hole MacLeod course will be built alongside the original course at Trump’s Menie venue.
Members of the Aberdeenshire council’s Formartine Area Committee backed the application made by Trump International Golf Links Scotland by eight votes to four.
The vote comes despite anger from locals over the development and concerns over its potential environmental impact.
The new course will be named after the US President’s mother, Mary Anne MacLeod, who was born and brought up on the Isle of Lewis before emigrating to New York.
Councillors heard the location of the MacLeod Course was logical as it will share the existing clubhouse and associated facilities on site.
They were told Trump’s second course will help to promote the north-east of Scotland as a tourism destination.
Conditions attached to the new application will address the significant issue of environmental monitoring and control.
Although there were no objections from Scottish Natural Heritage, it had advised that parts of the course could have been redesigned to make them less susceptible to future coastal erosion or a commitment made for adaptive management as part of an agreed Shoreline Management Plan.
Following the meeting, committee chairwoman Isobel Davidson said: “This matter was given due consideration by members and will enable the applicant to proceed with their plans for a second golf course at Menie.
“However, there is a clear conflict between economic benefit and public interest.
“Therefore, it will be vital that the conditions to strengthen the environmental management plan added by the committee are strictly adhered to,” said Davidson
The first Menie course was opened in 2012 and in, a separate application yet to be approved, the ‘Trump Estate’ development aims to build two, three, four and five-bedroom cottages, as well as a hotel, around the site.